Dog Guarding Gates Of Hell

Dog Guarding Gates Of Hell
Edward R. Forte October 24, 2021

Gates, Doors, And Pens

Dog Guarding Gates Of Hell

[4] And, like these close relatives, Cerberus was, with only the rare iconographic exception, multi-headed.Between them, a tree represents the sacred grove of Hades' wife Persephone.[27] Athena, Hermes and Heracles, leading a two-headed Cerberus out of the underworld, as Persephone looks on.[29] According to Apollodorus, this was the twelfth and final labour imposed on Heracles.[30] In a fragment from a lost play Pirithous, (attributed to either Euripides or Critias) Heracles says that, although Eurystheus commanded him to bring back Cerberus, it was not from any desire to see Cerberus, but only because Eurystheus thought that the task was impossible.Euripides has his initiation being "lucky" for Heracles in capturing Cerberus.In the Odyssey, Homer has Hermes and Athena as his guides.Along with bringing back Cerberus, Heracles also managed (usually) to rescue Theseus, and in some versions Pirithous as well.[40] According to Apollodorus, Heracles found Theseus and Pirithous near the gates of Hades, bound to the "Chair of Forgetfulness, to which they grew and were held fast by coils of serpents", and when they saw Heracles, "they stretched out their hands as if they should be raised from the dead by his might", and Heracles was able to free Theseus, but when he tried to raise up Pirithous, "the earth quaked and he let go.560 BC) from Olympia, where Theseus and Pirithous (named) are seated together on a chair, arms held out in supplication, while Heracles approaches, about to draw his sword.[43] In the lost play Pirithous, both heroes are rescued,[44] while in the rationalized account of Philochorus, Heracles was able to rescue Theseus, but not Pirithous.[45] In one place Diodorus says Heracles brought back both Theseus and Pirithous, by the favor of Persephone,[46] while in another he says that Pirithous remained in Hades, or according to "some writers of myth" that neither Theseus, nor Pirithous returned.There are various versions of how Heracles accomplished Cerberus' capture.In some early sources Cerberus' capture seems to involve Heracles fighting Hades.Consistent with the no iron requirement, on an early-sixth-century BC lost Corinthian cup, Heracles is shown attacking Hades with a stone,[54] while the iconographic tradition, from c.560 BC, often shows Heracles using his wooden club against Cerberus.[69] Seneca's Cerberus too, like Ovid's, reacts violently to his first sight of daylight.Pausanias reports that according to local legend Cerberus was brought up through a chasm in the earth dedicated to Clymenus (Hades) next to the sanctuary of Chthonia at Hermione, and in Euripides' Heracles, though Euripides does not say that Cerberus was brought out there, he has Cerberus kept for a while in the "grove of Chthonia" at Hermione.[71] Pausanias also mentions that at Mount Laphystion in Boeotia, that there was a statue of Heracles Charops ("with bright eyes"), where the Boeotians said Heracles brought up Cerberus.[72] Other locations which perhaps were also associated with Cerberus being brought out of the underworld include, Hierapolis, Thesprotia, and Emeia near Mycenae.[81] Homer does not name or describe Cerberus, but simply refers to Heracles being sent by Eurystheus to fetch the "hound of Hades", with Hermes and Athena as his guides,[82] and, in a possible reference to Cerberus' capture, that Heracles shot Hades with an arrow.630 – 555 BC) apparently wrote a poem called Cerberus, of which virtually nothing remains.[86] However the early-sixth-century BC-lost Corinthian cup from Argos, which showed a single head, and snakes growing out from many places on his body,[87] was possibly influenced by Stesichorus' poem.[90] Bacchylides (5th century BC) also mentions Heracles bringing Cerberus up from the underworld, with no further details.425 – 348 BC) refers to Cerberus' composite nature, citing Cerberus, along with Scylla and the Chimera, as an example from "ancient fables" of a creature composed of many animal forms "grown together in one".[100] Euphorion of Chalcis (3rd century BC) describes Cerberus as having multiple snake tails, and eyes that flashed, like sparks from a blacksmith's forge, or the volcaninc Mount Etna.Cerberus is described as "triple-throated", with "three fierce mouths", multiple "large backs", and serpents writhing around his neck.[104] Later Virgil describes Cerberus, in his bloody cave, crouching over half-gnawed bones.[110] Seneca's Cerberus has three heads, a mane of snakes, and a snake tail, with his three heads being covered in gore, and licked by the many snakes which surround them, and with hearing so acute that he can hear "even ghosts".But upon leaving the underworld, at his first sight of daylight, a frightened Cerberus struggles furiously, and Heracles, with the help of Theseus (who had been held captive by Hades, but released, at Heracles' request) drag Cerberus into the light.[112] Seneca, like Diodorus, has Heracles parade the captured Cerberus through Greece.Heracles asked Hades (here called Pluto) for Cerberus, and Hades said that Heracles could take Cerberus provided he was able to subdue him without using weapons.In an apparently unique version of the story, related by the sixth-century AD Pseudo-Nonnus, Heracles descended into Hades to abduct Persephone, and killed Cerberus on his way back up.petasos) and One of the two earliest depictions of the capture of Cerberus (composed of the last five figures on the right) shows, from right to left: Cerberus, with a single dog head and snakes rising from his body, fleeing right, Hermes, with his characteristic hat () and caduceus , Heracles, with quiver on his back, stone in left hand, and bow in right, a goddess, standing in front of Hades' throne, facing Heracles, and Hades, with scepter, fleeing left.The capture of Cerberus was a popular theme in ancient Greek and Roman art.590–580 BC) from Argos (now lost),[117] shows a naked Heracles, with quiver on his back and bow in his right hand, striding left, accompanied by Hermes.Heracles threatens Hades with a stone, who flees left, while a goddess, perhaps Persephone or possibly Athena, standing in front of Hades' throne, prevents the attack.The other earliest depiction, a relief pithos fragment from Crete (c.A mid-sixth-century BC Laconian cup by the Hunt Painter adds several new features to the scene which also become common in later works: three heads, a snake tail, Cerberus' chain and Heracles' club.He is being held on a chain leash by Heracles who holds his club raised over head.[126] Snakes are also often shown rising from various parts of his body including snout, head, neck, back, ankles, and paws.525–510 BC) by the Andokides painter (Louvre F204),[128] in addition to the usual two heads and snake tail, show Cerberus with a mane down his necks and back, another typical Cerberian feature of Attic vase painting.[129] Andokides' amphora also has a small snake curling up from each of Cerberus' two heads.Besides this lion-like mane and the occasional lion-head mentioned above, Cerberus was sometimes shown with other leonine features.In Roman art the capture of Cerberus is usually shown together with other labors.Lincoln notes a similarity between Cerberus and the Norse mythological dog Garmr, relating both names to a Proto-Indo-European root *ger- "to growl" (perhaps with the suffixes -*m/*b and -*r).[139] Another suggested etymology derives Cerberus from "Ker berethrou", meaning "evil of the pit".At least as early as the 6th century BC, some ancient writers attempted to explain away various fantastical features of Greek mythology;[141] included in these are various rationalized accounts of the Cerberus story.The serpent was called the "hound of Hades" only because anyone bitten by it died immediately, and it was this snake that Heracles brought to Eurystheus.The geographer Pausanias (who preserves for us Hecataeus' version of the story) points out that, since Homer does not describe Cerberus, Hecataeus' account does not necessarily conflict with Homer, since Homer's "Hound of Hades" may not in fact refer to an actual dog.Other rationalized accounts make Cerberus out to be a normal dog.Heracles killed Orthus, and drove away Geryon's cattle, with Cerberus following along behind.After searching the entire Peloponnesus, Heracles found where it was said Cerberus was being held, went down into the cave, and brought up Cerberus, after which it was said: "Heracles descended through the cave into Hades and brought up Cerberus.".A 2nd-century AD Greek known as Heraclitus the paradoxographer (not to be confused with the 5th-century BC Greek philosopher Heraclitus) – claimed that Cerberus had two pups that were never away from their father, which made Cerberus appear to be three-headed.Inferno by Virgil feeding Cerberus earth, in the Third Circle of Hell.All three Vatican Mythographers repeat Servius' derivation of Cerberus' name from creoboros.[152] The Second Vatican Mythographer repeats (nearly word for word) what Fulgentius had to say about Cerberus,[153] while the Third Vatican Mythographer, in another very similar passage to Fugentius', says (more specifically than Fugentius), that for "the philosophers" Cerberus represented hatred, his three heads symbolizing the three kinds of human hatred: natural, causal, and casual (i.e.Thus Cerberus came to symbolize avarice,[157] and so, for example, in Dante's Inferno, Cerberus is placed in the Third Circle of Hell, guarding over the gluttons, where he "rends the spirits, flays and quarters them,"[158] and Dante (perhaps echoing Servius' association of Cerbeus with earth) has his guide Virgil take up handfuls of earth and throw them into Cerberus' "rapacious gullets. .

CERBERUS (Kerberos)

Greek Name Κερβερος Transliteration Kerberos Latin Spelling Cerberus Translation Death-Darkness?Heracles and Cerberus the hound of Hades, Caeretan black-figure hydria C6th B.C., Musée du Louvre.According to some he had fifty heads although this count may have included the serpents of his mane.Herakles (Heracles) was sent to fetch Kerberos as one of his twelve labours, a task which he accomplished with the aid of the goddess Persephone.[1.1] TYPHOEUS & EKHIDNA (Hesiod Theogony 310, Quintus Smyrnaeus 6.260, Hyginus Pref & Fab 30).Hesiod, who is the first that gives his name and origin, calls him (Theog.Later writers describe him as a monster with only three heads, with the tail of a serpent and a mane consisting of the heads of various snakes.Greek Name Κυνα του Αιδου Transliteration Kuna tou Aidou Latin Spelling Cyna Hadum Translation Hound of Hades.Heracles, Cerberus and Hecate, Apulian red-figure volute krater C4th B.C., Staatliche Antikensammlungen."[The ghost of Herakles addresses Odysseus in Hades :] ‘He [Eurystheus] once sent me even here [to Haides] to fetch away the hound of Haides, for he thought no task could be more fearsome for me than that.But I brought the hound out of Haides' house and up to earth, because Hermes helped me on my way, and gleaming-eyed Athene.’".was joined in love to her [Ekhidna (Echidna)] ."And before them [the halls of Haides and Persephone] a dreaded hound (deinos kunos) [Kerberos (Cerberus)], on watch, who has no pity, but a vile stratagem : as people go in he fawns on all, with actions of his tail and both ears, but he will not let them go back out, but lies in wait for them and eats them up, when he catches any going back through the gates."."[Comedy Play in which Eirene (Irene), goddess of peace, has been trapped in a deep pit :] Let us beware lest the cursed Kerberos (Cerberus) prevent us even from the nethermost hell from delivering the goddess by his furious howling, just as he did when on earth."."Herakles asked Pouton (Pluton) [Haides] for Kerberos (Cerberus), and was told to take the hound if he could overpower it without using any of the weapons he had brought with him.He found Kerberos at the gates of Akheron (Acheron), and there, pressed inside his armour and totally covered by the lion's skin, he threw his arms round its head and hung on, despite bites from the serpent-tail, until he convinced the beast with his choke-hold.Then, with it in tow, he made his ascent through Troizenos (Troezen)."As a twelfth labour Herakles was to fetch Kerberos (Cerberus) from Haides' realm.Kerberos had three dog-heads, a serpent for a tail, and along his back the heads of all kinds of snakes.".Truly in the Forges or in Meligounis leap such sparks into the air, when iron is beaten with hammers, and the anvil roars beneath might blows,--or up inside smoke Aitna (Etna), lair of Asteropos.But lightly Zeus' son [Herakles] with his crashing blows tamed him, and haled him from the cataract flood of Styx, with heavy-drooping head, and dragged the Dog sore loth to the strange upper air all dauntlessly."."A headland that projects into the sea, Tainaron (Taenarum), with its temple of Poseidon situated in a grove; and secondly, near by, to the cavern through which, according to the myth writers, Kerberos (Cerberus) was brought up from Haides by Herakles.".All are surrounded by fences of stones, while in the place of Klymenos there is also a chasm in the earth.But Hekataios (Hecataeus) of Miletos gave a plausible explanation, stating that a terrible serpent lived on Tainaron, and was called the Hound of Hades, because any one bitten was bound to die of the poison at once, and it was this snake, he said, that was brought by Herakles to Eurystheus.Late poets gave the name Kerberos, and though in other respects they made him resemble a dog, they say that he had three heads.Homer, however, does not imply that he was a dog, the friend of man, any more than if he called a real serpent the Hound of Hades.".that Herakles dragged up the Hound of Haides [Kerberos (Cerberus)]."."By the smaller offerings of Mikythos (Micythus) [at Olympia] ."Here [on Mount Laphystios in Boiotia], say the Boiotians, Herakles ascended with the hound of Hades (kuna Haidou) [Kerberos (Cerberus)]."."He [Herakles] received a command from Eurystheus to bring Kerberos (Cerberus) up from Hades to the light of day.And assuming that it would be to his advantage for the accomplishment of this Labour, he went to Athens and took part in the Eleusinian Mysteries, Musaios (Musaeus), the son of Orpheus, being at that time in charge of the initiatory rites .Herakles then, according to the myths which have come down to us, descended into the realm of Hades, and being welcomed like a brother by Persephone brought Theseus and Peirithous back to the upper world after freeing them from their bonds.This he accomplished by the favour of Persephone, and receiving the dog Kerberos in chains he carried him away to the amazement of all and exhibited him to men."."The goddess Kore (Core) [Persephone] who delivered Kerberos (Cerberus) into his [Herakles'] hands."."Hercules had been sent for the three-headed dog [Cerberus] by King Eurystheus."."From Typhon the giant and Echidna were born .Hercules, son of Jove [Zeus], to bring up the dog Cerberus."."[The Erinys] Tisiphone brought with her poisons too of magic power [to cause madness] : lip-froth of Cerberus, the Echidna's venom, wild deliriums, blindnesses of the brain, and crime and tears, and maddened lust for murder; all ground up, mixed with fresh blood, boiled in a pan of bronze, and stirred with a green hemlock stick."."For that son's [Theseus'] death Medea mixed her poisoned aconite, brought with her long ago from Scythicae's (Scythia's) shores, said to be slobbered by Echidnaea [i.e.There is a cavern yawning dark and deep, and there a falling track where Hero Tirynthius [Herakles of Tiryns] dragged struggling, blinking, screwing up his eyes against the sunlight and the blinding day, the hell-hound Cerberus, fast on a chain of adamant.His three throats filled the air with triple barking, barks of frenzied rage, and spattered the green meadows with white spume.This, so men think, congealed and, nourished by the rich rank soil, gained poisonous properties."I [Herakles (Heracles) ] faced unafraid Cerberus' triple heads."."[Orpheus addresses Haides, king of the underworld :] ‘I have come down not with intent to see the glooms of Tartara, nor to enchain the triple-snaked necks of Medusaeum [Kerberos (Cerberus)].’"."His wits were stolen away, like him [unknown man] who saw in dread [Kerberos (Cerberus)] the three-necked hound of Hell with chains fast round his middle neck, and never lost his terror till he lost his nature too and turned to stone."."[Deianeira, wife of Herakles, laments :] ‘My lord is ever absent from me .Cerberus, branching from one trunk into a three-fold dog, his hair inwoven with the threatening snake."."Huge Cerberus, monstrously couched in a cave confronting them, made the whole region echo with this three-throated barking.The Sibyl, seeing the snakes bristling upon his neck now, threw him for bait a cake for honey and wheat infused with sedative drugs.Aeneas, passing its entrance, the watch-dog neutralize, strode rapidly from the bank of that river [Styx] of no return.".Still more: the very house of Death and deepest abysses of Tartarus were spellbound, and the Eumenides [Erinyes] with livid snakes entwined in their hair; Cerberus stood agape and his triple jaws forgot to bark."."Cerberus guards the cave of hell with his three throats.".By night we [the ghosts of the dead] drift abroad, night frees imprisoned Shades, and even Cerberus casts aside his chains and strays."."Only to one mortal [Herakles] has the Stygian darkness become light and Cerberus has howled to find himself dragged off against the will of Dis [Haides]?".No, you say, we must draw the line at that; well then, Orcus is not a god either.".Cerberus, Laconian black-figure kylix C6th B.C., National Archaeological Museum of Taranto."[Hera complains about Herakles :] ‘Nor is earth vast enough for him [Herakles (Heracles)]; behold, he has broken down the doors of infernal Jove [Haides], and brings back to the upper world the spoils of a conquered king [i.e.I myself saw, yes, saw him, the shadows of nether night dispersed and Dis [Haides] overthrown, proudly displaying to his father [Zeus] a brother's spoils.Why does he not drag forth, bound and loaded down with fetters, Pluto [Haides] himself, who drew a lot equal to Jove's [Zeus']?Why does he not lord it over conquered Erebus and lay bare the Styx?"[Herakles upon returning with Kerberos (Cerberus) describes his journey to the underworld :] ‘Whoever [of the gods] from on high looks down on things of earth, and would not be defiled by a strange, new sight, let him turn away his gaze, lift his eyes to heaven, and shun the portent.To appoint me penalties and tasks earth is not broad enough for Juno's [Hera's] hate.I have seen and revealed the lower world.If aught is left to do, give it to me, O Juno [Hera]; too long already dost thou let my hands lie idle.Unfold his heroic deeds in order; tell how long a way leads to the gloomy shades, and how the Tartarean dog bore his galling bonds.’.Soon as he feels the stir of feet he raises his head, rough with darting snakes, and with ears erect catches at the onsped sound, wont as he is to hear even the shades.When [Herakles] the son of Jove stood closer, within his cave the dog crouches hesitant and feels a touch of fear.Then suddenly, with deep bayings, he terrifies the silent places; the snakes hiss threateningly along all his shoulders.Then from his left arm the hero looses the fierce-grinning jaws, thrusts out before him the Cleonaean head and, beneath that huge shield crouching, plies his mighty club with victorious right hand.Me also [Theseus trapped in Haides] they give as boon to Alcides' prayer.‘Then, stroking the monster's sullen necks, he binds him with chains of adamant.Forgetful of himself, the watchful guardian of the dusky realm droops his ears, trembling and willing to be led, owns his master, and with muzzle lowered follows after, beating both his sides with snaky tail.But when he came to the Taenarian borders, and the strange gleam of unknown light smote on his eyes, though conquered he regained his courage and in frenzy shook his ponderous chains.Then even to my aid Alcides [Herakles] looked, and with our twofold strength we drew the dog along, mad with rage and attempting fruitless war, and brought him out to earth.But when he saw the bright light of day and viewed the clear spaces of the shining sky, black night rose over him and he turned his gaze to ground, closed tight his eyes and shut out the hated light; backward he turned his face and with all his necks sought the earth; then in the shadow of Hercules he hid his head.’".since the dog [Kerberos (Cerberus)] was stolen away [by Herakles] has blocked the empty gate [of Haides] with her outstretched torch.".Nay more, they say that the dog [Kerberos (Cerberus)] has burst his chains of Taenarian iron, and is wandering through our fields; that the earth has rumbled; that ghosts go stealing through the groves, larger than mortal forms.".blind Chaos is burst open, and for the tribes of Dis [Haides] a way is given to the upper world .in mad rage three-headed Cerberus shook his heavy chains.".Though he bar his realm, and though the Stygian dog [Kerberos (Cerberus)] keep guard o'er the grim doors, Theseus alone finds out forbidden ways.".when he dragged the dog [Kerberos (Cerberus)] by violence out of Tartarus, brought me [Theseus], too, along with him to the upper world.".Hermes, Cerberus and Heracles, Athenian black-figure hydria C6th B.C., Toledo Museum of Art."Cerberus lying on the murky threshold perceived them, and reared up with all his mouths wide agape, fierce even to entering folk; but now his black neck swelled up all threatening, now had he torn and scattered their bones upon the ground, had not the god [Hermes] with branch Lethaean soothed his bristling frame and quelled with threefold slumber the steely glare."."Fierce Alcides [Herakles] [provoked Haides], when the iron threshold of Cerberus' gate fell silent, its guardian removed."."Lay aside thy fears [for the beloved dead], and be no more in dread of threatening Letus (Death) [Thanatos]: Cerberus with triple jaws will not bark at him."."But do ye, O monarchs of the dead and thou, Ennean Juno [Persephone], if ye approve my prayer [provide a peaceful journey for the soul of my dead father] ."[Psykhe (Psyche) is given instructions for her journey down into the underworld :] When you have crossed the river [Akheron (Acheron)] and have advanced a little further, some aged women weaving at the loom will beg you to lend a hand for a short time.But you are not permitted to touch that either, for all these and many other distractions are part of the ambush which Venus [Aphrodite] will set to induce you to release one of the cakes from your hands.Do not imaging that the loss of a mere barley cake is a trivial matter, for if you relinquish either of them, the daylight of this world above will be totally denied you. Posted there is [Kerberos (Cerberus)] a massive hound with a huge, triple-formed head.This monstrous, fearsome brute confronts the dead with thunderous barking, though his menaces are futile since he can do them no harm.He keeps constant guard before the very threshold and the dark hall of Proserpina [Persephone], protecting that deserted abode of Dis [Haides].Then you can easily pass him, and gain immediate access to Proserpina herself .Other references not currently quoted here: Euripides Heracles 25 & 611.A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.



Supernatural dog associated with Hell or the underworld in many cultures and belief systems.Physical characteristics vary, but they are commonly black, anomalously overgrown, supernaturally strong, and often have red eyes or accompanied by flames.[5] In Lower Brittany there are stories of a ghost ship crewed by the souls of criminals with hellhounds set to guard them and inflict on them a thousand tortures.In Germany, it was believed that the devil would appear as a black hellhound, especially on Walpurgisnacht.In Norse mythology, Garmr or Garm (Old Norse for "rag") is a wolf or dog associated with both the Goddess Hel and Ragnarök and described as a blood-stained guardian of Hel's gate.The gwyllgi (compound noun of either gwyllt "wild" or gwyll "twilight" + ci "dog") is a mythical black dog from Wales that appears as an English mastiff with baleful breath and blazing red eyes.Christians came to dub these mythical creatures as "The Hounds of Hell" or "Dogs of Hell" and theorized they were therefore owned by Satan.They are supposed to hunt on specific nights (the eves of St.Some say Arawn only hunts from Christmas to Twelfth Night.An alternative name in Welsh folklore is Cŵn Mamau ("Hounds of the Mothers").Black hellhounds with fiery eyes are reported throughout Latin America from Mexico to Argentina under a variety of names including the Perro Negro (Spanish for black dog), Nahual (Mexico), Huay Chivo, and Huay Pek (Mexico) – alternatively spelled Uay/Way/Waay Chivo/Pek, Cadejo (Central America), the dog Familiar (Argentina) and the Lobizon (Paraguay and Argentina).They are usually said to be either incarnations of the Devil or a shape-changing sorcerer.The dog is said to haunt the Hanging Hills: a series of rock ridges and gorges that serve as a popular recreation area.The term is also common in American blues music, such as with Robert Johnson's 1937 song, "Hellhound on My Trail".The jinn likewise is often said to roam around graveyards and eating corpses.Led by the god Śakra in the guise of a forester, Mahākanha scares unrighteous people toward righteousness so that fewer people will be reborn in hell.His appearance portends the moral degeneration of the human world, when monks and nuns do not behave as they should and humanity has gone astray from ethical livelihood.Hell hound First appearance Greyhawk (1975) Based on Hellhound Information Type Outsider Alignment Lawful Evil.It is classified as an outsider from the Nine Hells.However, the Fourth Edition depicts them as nearly skeletal canines wreathed in flame.A favorite pack tactic is to silently surround prey, and then cause two hell hounds to close in and make the victim back into another hell hound's fiery breath.The authors described them as the "first serious representative of a class of monsters your players will be fighting against for their whole careers: evil outsiders," and that they are interesting because they "introduce players to monsters with an area-effect attack (their fiery breath). .


A sinister combine of AIDS, substance abuse and new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis has become an American Cerberus -- a vicious, three-headed dog, not only guarding the gates of the hells we have created in inner cities, but also running loose into every part of our nation.The most sinister aspect of this public health crisis is that each of these killers and cripplers goads the others to be more menacing and more difficult to prevent, control and treat.More than half the homeless Americans (some say as many as 90 percent) suffer from alcohol and/or drug abuse and addiction.But AIDS, tuberculosis and substance abuse can be found in every part of America.And more and more Americans are afflicted with all three diseases.A new public health campaign should be waged on every front -- prevention, treatment and research -- and against all three killers.The new president has the opportunity to spark a saturation campaign of education and prevention about AIDS, substance abuse and tuberculosis, based on the realities of 1993.But is there a parent alive who -- faced with a child who had sexual intercourse or fell victim to drug addiction -- would prefer to have that child denied the chance to use a condom or a clean needle?The National Institutes of Health spend just over $1 billion a year on AIDS research.Basic research for substance abuse gets less than half that amount, a paltry sum against the fact that substance abuse and addiction are the nation's number one health problem and the single largest cause of new AIDS cases. .

Cerberus Greek Mythology

Cerberus was the guard dog at the gates of Hades, with a taste for human flesh for anyone who tried to enter.He was depicted with three heads, lion’s claws, and sometimes with a mane of snakes and a serpent’s tail.Cerberus was featured in the tale of Orpheus, who traveled to the Underworld for his wife Eurydice, who was killed by snakes when Aristeus chased her into a snake den.He served King Eurystheus, who gave him Twelve Labors, or tasks, to complete. .



What Is The Best Small Indoor Dog

What Is The Best Small Indoor Dog.

Remember you can find just about any breed of dog, purebred or mixed, at local shelters and rescues.1/32 Affenpinscher (Picture Credit: Yvonne Van der Horst/Getty Images) The Affenpinscher, also known as the "Monkey Dog" ("affen" means "ape/monkey" in German, and "pinscher" means "terrier"), is small but feisty, full of spunk and energy.2/32 Bichon Frise (Picture Credit: Chenwei Ding / EyeEm/Getty Images) With a compact body, baby-doll face, and fluffy, white hair, the Bichon is a very appealing breed whose perky, good-natured disposition only enhances their looks.3/32 Bolognese (Picture Credit: sssss1gmel/Getty Images) Comical and curious, this intelligent, devoted dog loves to spend time with their people, whether they go for walks, run errands, or play with the kids.6/32 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (Picture Credit: Mark Liddell/Getty Images) The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a beautiful small dog who undoubtedly is a contender for the title of "top tail-wagger.".7/32 Chihuahua (Picture Credit: Image by Marie LaFauci/Getty Images) The Chihuahua is a saucy little pup, and not just because of their association with a certain fast-food Mexican restaurant.That larger-than-life persona makes them appealing to dog fans from all walks of life.Whether it's lying at their feet while they work, following them from room to room — not even the bathroom is sacred — or going for a joy ride in the car, Cotons adore clinging to their families like Velcro.They also sometimes bat at objects much like a cat would.Bred for hundreds of years to be a royal watchdog, the modern Lhasa approaches life the way their forebears did; they are loyal guardians of home and family.16/32 Maltese Shih Tzu (Picture Credit: Ken Gillespie Photography/Getty Images) Originally bred to be completely non-shedding -- which is a misnomer since that's not physically possible -- the Maltese succeeds to some degree, since they're a low-shedding companion.17/32 Maltipoo (Picture Credit: CBCK-Christine/Getty Images) Maltipoos are a popular cross of the Maltese and Toy or Miniature Poodle.They display the true terrier nature — independent, faithful, lively, sporty, and alert.19/32 Miniature Pinscher (Picture Credit: Sonja Pacho/Getty Images) "Min Pins rule" — that's the attitude you'll discover when you get acquainted with the Miniature Pinscher, a small, elegant dog with an arched neck and well-muscled body.The imperial court of China held them in great esteem, and they still know it today.24/32 Poodle (Toy & Miniature) (Picture Credit: Renphoto/Getty Images) Although today's Poodles seem to epitomize a life of leisure and luxury, make no mistake: These are real dogs bred to do real jobs.25/32 Pug (Picture Credit: Klaus Vedfelt/Getty Images) The Pug's comical looks, with deep wrinkles around big, dark eyes and a flat, round face, can't help but make you smile.Combined, these traits make up the interesting, intelligent, and strong-willed temperament of this breed.30/32 Toy Fox Terrier (Picture Credit: jodie777/Getty Images) The Toy Fox Terrier (TFT) was developed in the United States, making them one of only a few breeds that are truly "All American.".They will delight their family and are always willing to perform tricks or show off for any visitor.The Yorkipoo can be an excellent companion to anyone looking for a small, confident dog with ample energy and even greater love.Please remember you can adopt just about any breed of dog from a shelter or rescue.

Dog Door On Sliding Glass Door

Dog Door On Sliding Glass Door.

Top choices for weatherproof dog and cat doors for sliding glass doors would be brands like Endura Flap (Thermo Panel 3e) and Hale (Omni and Standard Panels).How do I seal a sliding glass door with a dog door?Most sliding glass inserts will have a height adjuster to lock in place.Does the glass in my slider need to match the glass in the dog insert?How will I lock up my house with the installed sliding door doggie door in place?Panel pet doors designed for a semi-permanent installation only will have a lock built into the pet door that you will use instead of the lock on your sliding glass door.The panels that use this method would be:.Note that pin locks are most readily used when the sliding panel is on the inside track.The Charley Bar mounts behind the sliding glass door on the jamb and locks the sliding glass door against the pet door.Will the aluminum panel fit with my vinyl slider track?With the installation of my new Sliding Glass Door Patio Panel, the total width of walking space decreases with the panel in place, how do I make sure that I will still have enough room to walk through?You can find out if there is enough space to still use your sliding glass door by subtracting the overall panel width of the pet door from the total width of the opening of your sliding glass door.After fitting your pet, be sure the remaining opening in your sliding door fits you.

How Do Microchip Pet Doors Work

How Do Microchip Pet Doors Work.

"An electronic pet door is more energy efficient and locks to keep out intruders.".An electronic pet door is more energy efficient and locks to keep intruders out.The door automatically unlocks when it specifically identifies your pet allowing him in or out.Some electronic doors are triggered by sensors in the pet’s collar, but others recognize microchips.You should consider an electronic door for pets that need or want to go in and out at will.Only use an electronic door if your yard is free of hazards and securely enclosed with a fence.Sometimes pets need to go when it is not convenient, i.e., while you are fixing dinner, helping your child with homework, or on a conference call for work.And if you have multiple pets, your trips to the back door increase exponentially.When you are not at home, your pet still has the freedom to eliminate or exercise outside.If your pet loses his collar, he cannot get back in the house which puts him at risk.Your dog will probably crouch down as he walks through the panel so it can be a little shorter than his overall height and still comfortably accommodate him.Look over your door’s directions before making that first cut and call for help if you need it!Some are designed as spring-loaded sliding glass inserts with pet-sized openings that fit in an existing door frame.Electronic doors are programmed to identify your pet(s) microchip(s) and open when they are near, but it can be annoying if the door opens every time your pet walks by.Also, consider the door’s appearance and pick a pleasing style that is not an eyesore.You do not want to heat or cool your backyard with a leaky door.In fact, these smart devices can be a relief for you and your pet.